The Nano Membrane Toilet

Treating human waste onsite without external energy or water.

Publications and Reports

Outputs from the Cranfield toilet project are listed below.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Services Beyond 2015: Improving Access & Sustainability. User perspectives to direct water reuse from the Nano Membrane Toilet

P.H Cruddas, A. Parker, A. Gormley

38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough University, UK, 2015


Ensuring Availability & Sustainable Management of Water & Sanitation for All. User perceptions & practical considerations for implementation of advance sanitation technologies; a case study of the Nano Membrane Toilet from Kumasi, Ghana

P.H Cruddas, A. Parker, A. Gormley

38th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 2016


Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis

Tosin Onabanjo Somorin, Athanasios J. Kolios, , , Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel


Designing the screw

Mercer, E., P. Cruddas , L. Williams , A. Kolios , A. Parker , S. Tyrrel , E. Cartmell , M. Pidou and E. J. McAdam (2016) Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2, 953-964

Download here

Understanding membrane processes

Yang, C.Y., E. Mercer, F. Kamranvand, L. Williams, A. Kolios, A. Parker, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, E.J. McAdam Tube-side mass transfer forhollow fibre membrane contactors operated in the low Graetz range, Journal of Membrane Science 523, 235–246


Modelling water and energy recovery

Hanak, D., Kolios, A., Fidalgo, B., McAdam, E., Parker, A., Williams, L., Tyrrel, S., Cartmell, E., (2016) Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustainednano-membrane toilet, Energy Conversion and Management 126, 352-361


Experiments to combust human faeces

Onabanjo, T., Kolios, A.J., Patchigolla, K., Wagland, S., Fidalgo, B. Jurado, N., Hanak, D.P., Manovic, V., Parker, A., McAdam, E., Williams, L., Tyrrel, S. (2016) Cartmell, E., An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces, Fuel 184, 780–791


Energy recovery from human faeces via gasification: A thermodynamic equilibrium modelling approach

T. Onabanjo, K. Patchigolla, S.T. Wagland, B. Fidalgo, A. Kolios, E. McAdam, A. Parker, L.Williams, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, Energy recovery from human faeces via gasification: A thermodynamic equilibrium modelling approach, Energy Conversion and Management 118:364-376


FSM3 conference in Hanoi, 19-21 January 2015

A.H. Parker*, E.J. McAdam*, A.J. Kolios*, L. Williams*, B.D. Martin*, O. Autin*, P. Cruddas*, E. Mercer*, S. Wagland*, K. Patchigolla*, J. Larsson*, R. Tierney*, E. Perez-Lopez*, S.F. Tyrrel*, E. Cartmell*

The abstract:

The presentations slides:

The poster:

Click here to download the posters that were part of our stand at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India

9th Sharing Knowledge Foundation Conference, 15th-17th May 2014

Business model


Fourth expert webinar hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute, Nov 26th 2013

Reinventing the toilet

Ben Martin*, Bruce Jefferson, Paul Jones, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Reinventing the toilet: using pervaporation membranes and hydrophilic/hydrophobic condensing media to produce pathogen free water in situ, Early Career Researchers in Water Sanitation and Hygiene conference, held at Cranfield University on 21st November 2013


The Nano Membrane Toilet

A.H. Parker*, B. Jefferson*, E.J. McAdam*, R.A. Dorey*, A.J. Kolios*, S.F. Tyrrel*, P.J. Longhurst*, S. Bolton*, G. Leighton*, R.W.A. Franceys*, E. Cartmell*, The Nano Membrane Toilet, Faecal Sludge Management Conference, 29-31 October 2012