The Nano Membrane Toilet

Treating human waste onsite without external energy or water.

Publications and Reports

Outputs from the Cranfield toilet project are listed below.


NANO MEMBRANE TOILET BUSINESS EXPLOITATION PLAN

OUTPUT 1 – BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS ANALYIS OF THE NANO MEMBRANE TOILET

Noemie de La Brosse, Abhi Bhargava, Vijay Bhopal, Nicola Greene

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Quantification of liquid phase faecal odour to evaluate membrane technology for wastewater reuse from decentralised sanitation facilities

Edwina Mercer; Chris J Davey; Pablo Campo; Dawn Fowler; Leon Williams; Athanasios Kolios; Alison Parker; Sean Tyrrel; Chris Walton; Elise Cartmell; Marc Pidou, Ewan Macadam, (2019) Quantification of liquid phase faecal odour to evaluate membrane technology for wastewater reuse from decentralised sanitation facilities, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 5, 161-171

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Human user testing of the Nano Membrane Toilet

Ravndal, K.T., Hennigs, J. Barrington, D., Collins, M., Engineer, B., Kolios, A, McAdam, E., Parker, A., Talaia, P., Tierney, R., Toolaram, A. Tyrrel, S., Williams, L., Human user testing of the Nano Membrane Toilet, WASH Futures Conference, Brisbane. Australia ,5-9 March 2018

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Impact of fouling, cleaning and faecal contamination on the separation of water from urine using thermally driven membrane separation

F. Kamranvand, C. Davey, H. Sakara,, O. Autin, E. Mercer, M. Collins, L. Williams, A. Kolios, A. Parker, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, E.J. McAdam (2018) Impact of fouling, cleaning and faecal contamination on the separation of water from urine using thermally driven membrane separation. Separation Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1080/01496395.2018.1433688

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Design and commissioning of a multi-mode prototype for thermochemical conversion of human faeces

Jurado, N., Somorin, T., Kolios, A.J.Email Author, Wagland, S., Patchigolla, K., Fidalgo, B., Parker, A., McAdam, E., Williams, L., Tyrrel, S., (2018) Design and commissioning of a multi-mode prototype for thermochemical conversion of human faeces, Energy Conversion and ManagementVolume 163, 1 May 2018, Pages 507-524

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Thermodynamic analysis of a gamma type Stirling engine in an energy recovery system

Sowale, A., Kolios, A.J.Email Author, Fidalgo, B., Somorin, T., Parker, A., Williams, L., Collins, M., McAdam, E., Tyrrel, S. (2018) Thermodynamic analysis of a gamma type Stirling engine in an energy recovery system, Energy Conversion and Management, 165, 528-540

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Probabilistic performance assessment of complex energy process systems - The case of a self-sustained sanitation system

Kolios, A., Ying, J., Somorin, T., Sowale, A., Anastasopoulou, A., Anthony, E.J., Fidalgo, B., Parker, A., Williams, L., Collins, M., MacAdam, S., Tyrrel, S., (2018) Probabilistic performance assessment of complex energy process systems – The case of a self-sustained sanitation system, Energy Conversion and Management 163, 74-85

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Conceptual environmental impact assessment of a novel self-sustained sanitation system incorporating a quantitative microbial risk assessment approach

Anastasopoulou, A., Kolios, A., Somorin, T., Soale, A., Ying, J., Fidalgo, B., Parker, A., Williams, L., Collins, M., MacAdam, S., Tyrrel, S., (2018) Conceptual environmental impact assessment of a novel self-sustained sanitation system incorporating a quantitative microbial risk assessment approach Science of The Total Environment, 639, 657-672

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Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Services Beyond 2015: Improving Access & Sustainability. User perspectives to direct water reuse from the Nano Membrane Toilet

P.H Cruddas, A. Parker, A. Gormley

38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough University, UK, 2015

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Ensuring Availability & Sustainable Management of Water & Sanitation for All. User perceptions & practical considerations for implementation of advance sanitation technologies; a case study of the Nano Membrane Toilet from Kumasi, Ghana

P.H Cruddas, A. Parker, A. Gormley

38th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 2016

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Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis

Tosin Onabanjo Somorin, Athanasios J. Kolios, , , Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel

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Designing the screw

Mercer, E., P. Cruddas , L. Williams , A. Kolios , A. Parker , S. Tyrrel , E. Cartmell , M. Pidou and E. J. McAdam (2016) Selection of screw characteristics and operational boundary conditions to facilitate post-flush urine and faeces separation within single household sanitation systems, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2, 953-964

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Understanding membrane processes

Yang, C.Y., E. Mercer, F. Kamranvand, L. Williams, A. Kolios, A. Parker, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, E.J. McAdam Tube-side mass transfer forhollow fibre membrane contactors operated in the low Graetz range, Journal of Membrane Science 523, 235–246

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Modelling water and energy recovery

Hanak, D., Kolios, A., Fidalgo, B., McAdam, E., Parker, A., Williams, L., Tyrrel, S., Cartmell, E., (2016) Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustainednano-membrane toilet, Energy Conversion and Management 126, 352-361

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Experiments to combust human faeces

Onabanjo, T., Kolios, A.J., Patchigolla, K., Wagland, S., Fidalgo, B. Jurado, N., Hanak, D.P., Manovic, V., Parker, A., McAdam, E., Williams, L., Tyrrel, S. (2016) Cartmell, E., An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces, Fuel 184, 780–791

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Energy recovery from human faeces via gasification: A thermodynamic equilibrium modelling approach

T. Onabanjo, K. Patchigolla, S.T. Wagland, B. Fidalgo, A. Kolios, E. McAdam, A. Parker, L.Williams, S. Tyrrel, E. Cartmell, Energy recovery from human faeces via gasification: A thermodynamic equilibrium modelling approach, Energy Conversion and Management 118:364-376

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FSM3 conference in Hanoi, 19-21 January 2015

A.H. Parker*, E.J. McAdam*, A.J. Kolios*, L. Williams*, B.D. Martin*, O. Autin*, P. Cruddas*, E. Mercer*, S. Wagland*, K. Patchigolla*, J. Larsson*, R. Tierney*, E. Perez-Lopez*, S.F. Tyrrel*, E. Cartmell*

The abstract: http://www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-dev/b-conferences/15-FSM3/Day-1/Rm-3/1-3-2-FSM3.pdf

The presentations slides: http://www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-dev/b-conferences/15-FSM3/Day-1/Rm-3/1-3-2-3-Parker.pdf

The poster: http://www.nanomembranetoilet.org/posters/nmt_hanoi.pdf


Click here to download the posters that were part of our stand at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India

9th Sharing Knowledge Foundation Conference, 15th-17th May 2014

Fourth expert webinar hosted by Stockholm Environment Institute, Nov 26th 2013


Reinventing the toilet

Ben Martin*, Bruce Jefferson, Paul Jones, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Reinventing the toilet: using pervaporation membranes and hydrophilic/hydrophobic condensing media to produce pathogen free water in situ, Early Career Researchers in Water Sanitation and Hygiene conference, held at Cranfield University on 21st November 2013

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The Nano Membrane Toilet

A.H. Parker*, B. Jefferson*, E.J. McAdam*, R.A. Dorey*, A.J. Kolios*, S.F. Tyrrel*, P.J. Longhurst*, S. Bolton*, G. Leighton*, R.W.A. Franceys*, E. Cartmell*, The Nano Membrane Toilet, Faecal Sludge Management Conference, 29-31 October 2012

http://www.pid.co.za/index.php/abstracts2/138-parker-the-nano-membrane-toilet
http://www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-dev/b-conferences/12-FSM2/c2.3-fsm2-parker-cranfield-university-uk.pdf